Friday, December 9, 2016

[UNESCO CI News] CI highlights

Wednesday, December 7, 2016

Indian "National Student Startup Policy" 2016 is launched

National Student Startup Policy 2016
by All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), 2016.

About the Policy
The President of India, Shri Pranab Mukherjee launched the National Student Startup Policy on November 16, 2016 at Rashtrapati Bhavan. The National Student Startup Policy, formulated by AICTE, aims to create 100,000 technology based student start-ups and a million employment opportunities within the next 10 years. The policy plans on achieving this by developing an ideal entrepreneurial ecosystem and promoting strong inter-institutional partnerships among technical institutions. It emphasizes the much-desired need for an appropriate startup policy to propel the youth of India through and beyond the 21st century.

1. The Preamble:
An analysis of Indian entrepreneur profiles reveals that 32 years is the average age of entrepreneurs and that only 6 percent of them are women. Interestingly enough, the majority of start-up entrepreneurs in the country have a background in MNCs (multinationals) and Indian tech companies (35 percent and 27 percent respectively, from a sample of the report). Only 13 percent of start-up founders have absolutely no experience in the field before launching their ventures (NASSCOM Report). 
Student (owned) start-ups have started to contribute towards market expansion and job creation. Most of the student (owned) start-ups have evolved from technology courses instead of other liberal studies or social sciences disciplines. In recent years, a few technological and entrepreneurship development institutions have initiated efforts to design Start-up Policies for student ventures on their campuses.
AICTE took up the task of designing the 'Start-up Policy for AICTE Approved Institutions' to increase the efforts of institutions as they prepare students for entrepreneurship. AICTE's Start-up Policy would outline roles of the AICTE, Academic Institutions, and TBI (Technology Business Incubators) in creating student entrepreneurs. 

2. Vision:
To create 100,000 tech-based start-ups (student owned) and a million employment opportunities within the next 10 years (2025). This would be done by developing an ideal entrepreneurial eco-system and promoting strong inter-institutional partnerships among technical institutions. 

3. Mission:
To help create a larger number of student-driven, on campus start-ups that will add to economic and social value. To achieve this, the below mentioned strategies would be applied:
- Teaching students and encouraging them to take up entrepreneurship as a preferred career choice 
- Preparing students for successful launching of their start-ups
- Re-orienting academic curriculum and pedagogy with a strong focus on Start-ups
- Developing customized teaching and training materials for start-ups and engaging them in pre-startup activities
- Capacity Building Programmes / Activities for faculty as well as trainers.
- Mentoring start-ups to become sustainable.

Tuesday, December 6, 2016

Contracting for Technology Transfer: Patent Licensing and Know-how in Brazil | UNU-MERIT Working Paper

Contracting for Technology Transfer: Patent Licensing and Know-how in Brazil
by Catalina Martinez & Pluvia Zuniga. UNU-MERIT Working Paper Series, 2016, No. #2016-065.

Abstract: Using contract level data, we study the relation between the inclusion of know-how in cross-border patent licensing agreements and the contractual terms used by firms to deal with moral hazard risks. We use official data on international technology contracts with patent licensing terms registered by affiliated and unaffiliated parties before the Department of Technology Transfer of the National Institute of Intellectual Property (INPI) in Brazil between 1996 and 2012. We find that contracts between unaffiliated parties involving know-how transfer show distinctive contractual and technology features compared to the rest: (i) they involve younger but lower quality technologies (compared to contracts without know-how); (ii) they are more prone to up front lump-sum payments than royalty or combined payments (royalty and fixed); and (iii) they are more likely to be accompanied by the licensing of other IPRs, in addition to patents, such as trademarks. 

Keywords: patent licensing, know-how, trademarks, technology contracts, Brazil 

New Book | The Ethics of Invention: Technology and the Human Future | by Sheila Jasanoff

The Ethics of Invention: Technology and the Human Future
by Sheila Jasanoff. W.W. Norton & Company, 2016, 320 pages, ISBN: 9780393078992.

About the Book
We live in a world increasingly governed by technology—but to what end?
Technology rules us as much as laws do. It shapes the legal, social, and ethical environments in which we act. Every time we cross a street, drive a car, or go to the doctor, we submit to the silent power of technology. Yet, much of the time, the influence of technology on our lives goes unchallenged by citizens and our elected representatives. In The Ethics of Invention, renowned scholar Sheila Jasanoff dissects the ways in which we delegate power to technological systems and asks how we might regain control.
Our embrace of novel technological pathways, Jasanoff shows, leads to a complex interplay among technology, ethics, and human rights. Inventions like pesticides or GMOs can reduce hunger but can also cause unexpected harm to people and the environment. Often, as in the case of CFCs creating a hole in the ozone layer, it takes decades before we even realize that any damage has been done. Advances in biotechnology, from GMOs to gene editing, have given us tools to tinker with life itself, leading some to worry that human dignity and even human nature are under threat. But despite many reasons for caution, we continue to march heedlessly into ethically troubled waters.
As Jasanoff ranges across these and other themes, she challenges the common assumption that technology is an apolitical and amoral force. Technology, she masterfully demonstrates, can warp the meaning of democracy and citizenship unless we carefully consider how to direct its power rather than let ourselves be shaped by it. The Ethics of Invention makes a bold argument for a future in which societies work together—in open, democratic dialogue—to debate not only the perils but even more the promises of technology.

About the Author
Sheila Jasanoff is professor of science and technology studies at Harvard Kennedy School. She is the author of many books on technology, most recently Science and Public Reason and Designs on Nature. She lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

New Book | The New ABCs of Research: Achieving Breakthrough Collaborations | by Ben Shneiderman

The New ABCs of Research: Achieving Breakthrough Collaborations
by Ben Shneiderman. Oxford University Press, 2016, 336 pages, ISBN: 9780198758839.

About the Book
The problems we face in the 21st century require innovative thinking from all of us. Be it students, academics, business researchers of government policy makers. Hopes for improving our healthcare, food supply, community safety and environmental sustainability depend on the pervasive application of research solutions. 
The research heroes who take on the immense problems of our time face bigger than ever challenges, but if they adopt potent guiding principles and effective research lifecycle strategies, they can produce the advances that will enhance the lives of many people. These inspirational research leaders will break free from traditional thinking, disciplinary boundaries, and narrow aspirations. They will be bold innovators and engaged collaborators, who are ready to lead, yet open to new ideas, self-confident, yet empathetic to others.
In this book, Ben Shneiderman recognizes the unbounded nature of human creativity, the multiplicative power of teamwork, and the catalytic effects of innovation. He reports on the growing number of initiatives to promote more integrated approaches to research so as to promote the expansion of these efforts. It is meant as a guide to students and junior researchers, as well as a manifesto for senior researchers and policy makers, challenging widely-held beliefs about how applied innovations evolve and how basic breakthroughs are made, and helping to plot the course towards tomorrow's great advancements.

About the Author
Ben Shneiderman is a Distinguished University Professor in the Department of Computer Science and Founding Director (1983-2000) of the Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory at the University of Maryland. His development of user interfaces such as the highlighted clickable link for the web, small touchscreen keyboards, and information visualization concepts earned him membership in the National Academy of Engineering.

Table of Contents
Guiding Principles
1: Combining Applied and Basic Research: ABC Principle
2: Blending Science, Engineering, and Design: SED Principle Blending
Science, Engineering & Design
3: What Science Contributes: Persistence in Understanding the World
4: What Engineering Contributes: Devotion to Focused Innovations
5: What Design Contributes: Fresh Thinking to Serve Human Needs
Research Lifecycle Strategies
6: Choose Actionable Problems that Address Civic, Business & Global Priorities
7: Apply Observation, Intervention, and Controlled Experiments
8: Form Teams with Diverse Individuals & Organizations
9: Test Ideas and Prototypes with Realistic Interventions
10: Promote Adoption & Assess Impact
Making it Happen
11: Why change is hard, but possible
12: Recommendations for action

IITD Lecture "Cycles of Invention and Discovery: Rethinking the Endless Frontier" by Prof. Venkatesh Narayanamurti | 8 December

Cycles of Invention and Discovery: Rethinking the Endless Frontier

Speaker: Prof. Venkatesh Narayanamurti
Benjamin Peirce Research Professor of Technology and Public Policy at Harvard

Date: December 8, 2016 | 5:30 pm

Venue: Seminar Hall, IIT Delhi
In this talk I will reflect om the genesis of the Information and Communications revolution and through an analysis of the hard case of Nobel Prizes in Physics to show that the causal direction of scientific discovery and radical invention are often reversed. They often arose in a culture of so called "applications oriented research" in industrial laboratories and will use those examples to enumerate the key ingredients of highly successful R&D institutions. My views have been shaped by my own personal experiences in industrial research, U.S National Laboratories and research intensive universities. By exploring the daily micro-practices of research, I will show how distinctions between the search for knowledge and creative-problem solving break down when one pays attention to how path breaking research actually happens. I will highlight the importance of designing institutions which transcend the 'basic-applied' dichotomy and contrasting them with models of the classic but still influential report Science, The Endless Frontier. The need for new integrative institutions to address global challenges such as climate change and alternative energy sources will be discussed.

About the speaker:
Venkatesh Narayanamurti is the Benjamin Peirce Research Professor of Technology and Public Policy at Harvard. He has served on numerous advisory boards of the federal government, research universities and industry. He was formerly the John L. Armstrong Professor and Founding Dean of the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Professor of Physics and Dean of Physical Sciences at Harvard. From 2009 to 2015 he served as the Director of the Science, Technology and Public Policy Program at the Harvard Kennedy School. He has a Ph D in Physics from Cornell University and a Honorary DSc from Tohoku University. He is the author of more than 240 scientific papers in different areas of condensed matter and applied physics. He lectures widely on solid state, computer, and communication, and energy technologies, and on the management of science, technology and public policy. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and an elected member of the U.S National Academy of Engineering and of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences. He served as the Foreign Secretary of the U.S National Academy of Engineering from 2011 to 2015.

New Book | Cycles of Invention and Discovery: Rethinking the Endless Frontier | by Venkatesh Narayanamurti & T. Odumosu.

Cycles of Invention and Discovery: Rethinking the Endless Frontier
by Venkatesh Narayanamurti and Toluwalogo Odumosu. Harvard University Press, 2016, 176 pages, ISBN: 9780674967960.

About the Book
Cycles of Invention and Discovery offers an in-depth look at the real-world practice of science and engineering. It shows how the standard categories of "basic" and "applied" have become a hindrance to the organization of the U.S. science and technology enterprise. Tracing the history of these problematic categories, Venkatesh Narayanamurti and Toluwalogo Odumosu document how historical views of policy makers and scientists have led to the construction of science as a pure ideal on the one hand and of engineering as a practical (and inherently less prestigious) activity on the other. Even today, this erroneous but still widespread distinction forces these two endeavors into separate silos, misdirects billions of dollars, and thwarts progress in science and engineering research.
The authors contrast this outmoded perspective with the lived experiences of researchers at major research laboratories. Using such Nobel Prize–winning examples as magnetic resonance imaging, the transistor, and the laser, they explore the daily micro-practices of research, showing how distinctions between the search for knowledge and creative problem solving break down when one pays attention to the ways in which pathbreaking research actually happens. By studying key contemporary research institutions, the authors highlight the importance of integrated research practices, contrasting these with models of research in the classic but still-influential report Science the Endless Frontier. Narayanamurti and Odumosu's new model of the research ecosystem underscores that discovery and invention are often two sides of the same coin that moves innovation forward.

About the Authors
Venkatesh Narayanamurti is Benjamin Peirce Research Professor of Technology and Public Policy at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and the Harvard Kennedy School.
Toluwalogo Odumosu is Assistant Professor of Science, Technology, and Society and Assistant Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering in the School of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of Virginia.

Table of Contents
1. Breaking Barriers, Building Bridges
2. Boundaries in Science and Engineering Research
3. The Basic/Applied Dichotomy: The Inadequacy of the Linear Model
4. The Origins of the "Basic" and "Applied" Descriptors
5. The Discovery–Invention Cycle
6. Bell Labs and the Importance of Institutional Culture
7. Designing Radically Innovative Research Institutions
8. The Need for a Radical Reformulation of S&T Policy
9. Moving Forward in Science and Technology Policy

Friday, December 2, 2016

[UNESCO CI News] CI highlights